Friday, October 31, 2014

Throughout the year groups and organizations often use a month to raise awareness of an issue, commemorate an event or group, or celebrate something.  For example,  May is Asthma Awareness Month, National Bike Month, Zombie Awareness Month, National Pet Month, and Jewish American Heritage Month.  November is New York State History Month.  The purpose of this is to celebrate the history of the state and recognize the contributions of state and local historians.   What can you do to celebrate New York State History Month? Keep it local!
                 1816 Farmington Quaker Meetinghouse
                 Clifton Springs Historical Society 
                 Granger Homestead
                 National Memorial Day Museum
                 Ontario County Historical Society
                 Phelps Historical Society
                 Seneca Falls Historical Society 
                 Yates County History Center

Friday, October 24, 2014

World War II Revisted

By John Marks, Curator of Collections and Exhibits

In February 2015 our fundraising dinner and music event will have a 1940s theme. “Wining and dining” events are always popular; as a historical society, we are building more educational programming around our fundraisers. While significant events took place between 1946 and 1949, World War II dominates the popular conception of the 1940s.

In 1995 we opened a major exhibit, Close to the Heart of the War: Geneva and World War II, and published a companion book. We conducted “history harvests” to identify people with stories, artifacts and photos. A researcher recorded many hours of oral history interviews and scoured local newspapers and records. So, why do World War II again? Is there anything left to say?

Of course there is, and here are three reasons:

Younger audiences. The youngest children of WWII vets are probably around 50 years old. Increasing numbers of visitors have no living relatives from that era and don’t feel a direct connection to the war. Museums, and our special collections in particular, can tell stories that engage visitors in ways that facts and statistics cannot.

New Genevans. Older residents, and followers of the historical society, are aware of the huge impact of the war on Geneva. To new arrivals (and the city does attract new residents every year), “Sampson” is a state park and “the ordnance depot” is home to a herd of white deer. The construction and operation of those two facilities brought thousands of new people to Geneva, whether on a 6-hour leave from training camp or to live. For new Genevan interested in history, it’s an important time period to understand.

New angles. There is always new information to discover. In 2008 we acquired a foot locker and other possessions of Robert Linzy, an African American staff sergeant from Geneva. Letters and photos continue to surface that weren’t available in the early 1990s. Of all the information that was generated during the earlier research, only a portion of it was used in the exhibit and book.

Robert Linzy
Geneva Night Out, Friday November 7, will incorporate all three of these elements in one exhibit. Students from the Public History course at Hobart & William Smith will present posters on aspects of Geneva and World War II. Issues closest to their hearts influence their research. Some are interested in the how the war affected the Colleges, others are looking at the social scene and nightlife during that time. Some are influenced by their other classes; one student is interested in the environmental impact of war efforts such as the Ordnance Depot and Sampson Naval Training Station.

All the students are charged with coming up with something new, rather than pasting sections of Close to the Heart of the War on a poster. It means moving past their own generational perspective, learning more about Geneva so they can evaluate the war’s impact, and looking for new material that wasn’t used in the previous projects.

Friday, October 17, 2014

Girl Bands and Geneva

By Alice Askins, Education Coordinator at Rose Hill Mansion

Recently, I got the book Swing Shift by Sherrie Tucker.  The book was published in 2000 and Professor Tucker was a professor at Hobart and William Smith when she wrote it.  Swing Shift is about the all-women bands of the 1930s and 1940s.  I wondered if any of the bands in the book were seen or heard in Geneva.  It turns out some of them were.

The first band I found was Ina Ray Hutton and her Melodears.  At the age of eight, Ina (1916 –1984) began dancing and singing onstage.   By the time she was 18, she had been featured in revues in Chicago and on Broadway, including the Ziegfield Follies.  In 1934, Irving Mills (a manager and jazz publisher) asked Ina to lead an all-girl orchestra called the Melodears.   

Ina and the Melodears were one of the first women bands filmed for Paramount shorts and Hollywood features.  The group visited Geneva several times in the 1930s, including in 1939, and performed at Schine’s Geneva Theater.  The group disbanded in 1939.    During the War years, many male musicians were drafted and “girl bands” came to prominence in popular music.  Ina, though, conducted an all-male band through the 1940s.  She brought them to town in 1948 when they played at Club 86. 

Between 1939 and 1948 Ina Ray was not forgotten in Geneva.  In 1942 She showed up in the Daily Times wearing her rubber bathing suit for the last time before she donated it to the war effort.  “Bombshell to Bomber,” said the Times.  

Ina and the Melodears, of course, were not the only female musicians of the era.  Professor Tucker mentioned that girl bands tended to be either bombshells or domestic angels.  Another girl band was Phil Spitalny’s Hour of Charm orchestra, which ran from 1934 to 1954.  I have not found that Hour of Charm visited Geneva, but they do show up frequently in the radio schedule listings in the local paper.  In 1946, for example, you could hear them on Sunday at 10pm on WHAM.  They were also featured in a short film, too, and were listed in between Cary Grant’s Mr. Lucky and a Donald Duck cartoon in the Schine’s Daily Times ad on July 12, 1943.

Geneva Daily Times, May 22, 1939

For twenty years, Phil Spitalny incorporated a talent search into his orchestra performances and women in this area tried out.  In 1941, the Daily Times reported that three young women had been chosen as “Cornell finalists” in the preliminary Hour of Charm song auditions.  The eventual winner would appear as guest singer on the Hour of Charm broadcast and win $100.  In 1947, the Shortsville Enterprise ran a piece congratulating Miss Ann Stoddard for performing a harp solo with the Hour of Charm.   

The Daily Times mentions several other “all-girl” bands appearing locally during the 1940s.  Joe Bishop and his All Girl Band played at Schine’s for the Halloween Fun Fest in 1940.  Pearl Jaquin’s All-American Girl Band performed at the Romulus Grange Hall in January 1941.  The same group played for the Danc’ Inn the next August.  Count Berni Vici and his All-Girl Band played Schine’s in February 1942.  The Count’s band also traveled with a chorus line.  In 1946, Geneva’s Armory hosted a Dance Parade, featuring Bonnie Downs and her All Girl Band.  Professor Tucker says the Downs Band was made up of Eastman School of Music students.

Many of the girl bands went on USO tours, both in the US and abroad.  I have not found that any of the nationally touring women’s bands played at the Geneva USO, but the Daily Times reported in April 1945 that “Music sweet and smooth was served up by Eastman School of Music students for servicemen at USO yesterday . . . an all-girl orchestra headed by Miss Nancy Gates of Geneva presented a program in the style of Phil Spitalny’s girl orchestra.  . . .”  The program was about a month after Joe Louis visited the Geneva USO.  It appears that the USO went for variety.

Monday, October 13, 2014

World War II in the Eyes of a "Boomer"

By Karen Osburn, Archivist

The Geneva Historical Society is starting to focus more on researching Geneva during the World War II years because we have an event coming up in February highlighting the entertainment, music, and costume of the 1940s.  Since I was born in the early 1950s World War II was very fresh in the memories of my parents and their friends so by process of osmosis I became more familiar with that war than some of the more recent ones during my own life. 

The years after World War II ended were filled with comic books, novels, television programs and newspaper articles about the War. My cousin, who was 10 years older than I, had an enormous collection of comics that I was allowed to read if I was very careful (and sometimes very sneaky) and many of them dealt with combat situations.  I remember sitting on the living room rug and quietly listening to my dad and his friends discuss their experiences in the War.   Since I was present they were never explicit about traumatic events, I can’t recall them ever even mentioning shooting or being shot at much less killing someone, but they did talk about things that happened from which they were able to extract some humor.  I think they forgot at times I was there and when that happened they were a bit harsher with their criticisms of the officers in charge of their units.  If I was really quiet I might even add a few words to my vocabulary that I didn’t dare use, but were interesting to know.

Geneva teachers helping with the harvest

When I mentioned the era was filled with television programs having to do with war, I mean full!  A quick look at Wikipedia found eight military programs dealing with World War II airing in 1962 alone.  That count is probably off because I didn’t recognize some of the titles, but I will mention just a few of the ones that appeared regularly on our family television:

Combat! (1962 – 1967)
12 O’clock High (1964 – 1967)
The Gallant Men (1962 – 1963)
No Time for Sergeants (1964)
Hogan’s Heroes (1965 – 1971)
McKeever and the Colonel (1962 – 1963)
McHale’s Navy (1962 – 1966)
Hennessey (1959 – 1962)
Ensign O’Toole (1962 – 1963
Convoy (1965 – 1966)

As a child, I really enjoyed these shows.  I loved the comedies not knowing at the time that the War experience may have humorous incidents, but as a whole, is not funny.  I also loved the dramas, romanticizing the soldiers.  I grew up in a neighborhood where all of the children my age were boys (except me of course), so we played “soldier” when we weren’t playing cowboys and Indians.  I could lob a dirt clod grenade with the best of them and many a night saw me coming in the house covered with dust and with my fingernails grimy from mining the garden for appropriate size dirt balls to thrown at the boys next door.  I think our “war” came to a screeching halt the day one of them hit me with a dirt covered rock he had mistaken for a clod.  I may even have used one of those “special occasion” words I learned watching TV with my father and his friends.

Angelo Street boys

Now that I am older, and TV programs about almost any war are generally shown on PBS and done by someone like Ken Burns, I perceive war for what it really is, a frightening breakdown of civilized discourse brought on by greed, fear and hatred and acted out with a tremendous loss of life and property.  There is very little romance or comedy involved.

How did the children of Geneva see World War II?  We have pictures of the young men on Angelo Street having “war exercises”.  There are also photos of scrap metal collections done by the children of the city.  One book, Kathryn Grover’s Close to the Heart of the War: Geneva in WWII mentions teenager boys working a midnight to 2pm shift at American Can.  Though I haven’t found reference to their feelings on the subject, rationing must have had an impact on how children ate.  With items like meat and sugar being rationed I suspect there were some interesting substitutes for cookies, hot dogs, sausages and meatloaf.  I was looking through a war time cookbook which had a recipe for preparing parsnips as a substitute for bananas!  There was also a recipe for potato chocolate candy, and a brown butter soup.  The soup had no meat or meat juice in it at all.  I suspect the closest it came to meat was if a bird flew over a house while it was being prepared.

I can’t imagine going to bed every night hoping my father would come home from the war in one piece, or watching my mother be afraid.  I know my own dad often told me he was glad he had daughters so he would not have to see us go off and fight.

Students at St. Francis DeSales with their War Saving Stamp books

Close to the Heart of the War  also includes images of children collecting for metal drives, collecting milkweed pods for life preservers, and participating in the war bond program.  Some younger folks worked in the farm fields in the summers because of lack of labor due to the draft and jobs with high priority during war time.  I worked hard around the house as a child because my folks did not believe in being idle, but I can’t imagine what it would feel like to get out of bed at 11 P.M. and go to work for 12 hours, then come home and try to go to sleep so I could do well in school.  Just the thought of these things makes my entire life feel very privileged.

Looking back on my childhood I realize how we never feared being hungry and cold, while children in Europe were still starving and living without basic necessities of life, like a dry place to spend the night, fresh water, fresh food, or clean clothes.  They didn’t portray that on TV!

Boy Scouts outside City Hall

There are as many different views of Geneva during and after the war as there were people who experienced it here.  I have only touched on a couple, but if you would like to know more Close to the Heart of the War: Genevaduring World War II can be purchased through our website.

Friday, October 3, 2014

Geneva's "Busted Yankees"

By Anne Dealy, Director of Education and Public Information

Top of the front page of the Geneva Daily Times, July 28, 1914 with war declaration.
Austria was the first nation to declare a state of war. They were quickly followed by Russia, France and Britain.

World War I exploded across the pages of Geneva’s newspaper during late summer, 1914. The front page of the Geneva Daily Times abruptly shifted its coverage from the Mexican Revolution and civil unrest in Haiti and Ireland to full-blown coverage of the war in Europe.

One immediate U.S. concern was for Americans abroad. As we saw in our previous post about the Herendeen family, the war came about so suddenly and unexpectedly that few people were prepared for it. As mobilization for war began across Europe, there were over 100,000 Americans visiting or living abroad who were unable to leave easily. In addition to covering the national story of these “busted Yankees” as they were sometimes called, the Geneva Times reported on local citizens who were caught up in the start of war and their efforts to return to Geneva.

Headline of newspaper article: Friends worry about Americans abroad.
Americans abroad were a concern throughout the country. Geneva Daily Times headline, August 1, 1914

In an August 1 article about Americans abroad, the Times listed 22 Genevans known to be living or traveling in Europe. Many were professors or scientists associated with Hobart and William Smith Colleges or the State Agricultural Experiment Station, while others, like the Herendeens, were touring the continent. One couple was on their honeymoon trip.

When the war began on August 4, the United States pledged to remain neutral, so Americans were not in any particular danger in the nations they were traveling in. However, no one wanted to be in a potential war zone, and the rush was on to get back to the States. There were two main problems facing those who wanted to leave: money and transportation.

Image of a sample letter of credit
A sample letter of credit from the Scientific American Handbook of Travel, 1910.

As we saw in John’s previous post, Frank Herendeen was in no rush to leave Germany. He and his family could afford to stay in the country during mobilization. Other Americans were not so lucky. Travelers at this time relied on cash, traveler’s checks or letters of credit drawn against funds deposited with a bank or broker based in the United States. In the first days of the war, many European banks would not honor checks or letters of credit, and travelers soon began to run out of money. The U.S. State Department had to act as an intermediary, helping those in the States send funds to their relatives in Europe. By August 4, Congress had appropriated $2.5 million dollars to be distributed to Americans stranded in Europe without money. On August 11 The Times reported that American diplomats were trying to get 5,000 penniless students out of Germany.

Transportation was the second problem, largely due to war mobilization. On August 4, a Geneva resident and native of Germany, Joseph Holz, explained to the Times how German mobilization worked. He said that his male relations were probably already with their regiments. The order for mobilization of the army immediately put the nation under martial law, subjecting all transportation and communication lines to military control. News of the order for mobilization was spread by telegraph, telephone, courier, and paper bulletin. Response was immediate:
Every man drops his work as soon as he hears the order; the plow is left in the furrow; customers are left at the counter; balances are left unchecked in the bank. Every man liable for military service rushes to the nearest transportation line, which will take him to his regiment, whether its headquarters be a mile away or 100 or 500 miles distant. The reservists do not wait to pack luggage or food. There are clothing, equipment and food for all at the mobilization centers in storage warehouses, always filled, ready for the call. Men go to the trains often hatless and coatless.
According to Holz, this drill was practiced twice a year. German reservists did not need train tickets, since only soldiers could ride the trains during mobilization and they rode for free. This was one reason many foreigners had difficulty getting out of Europe, and why Herendeen did not rush to leave. Trains simply weren’t running for civilians until after the armed forces were assembled, which took about two weeks. Passenger trains were evidently commandeered in other countries as well. American travelers got out however they could, crammed into freight cars and cattle cars with makeshift benches, or like Genevan Katherine Gracey, sitting on a suitcase in the aisle for two days.

Train car with men crowding the windows and waving
Mobilization train full of German men heading to war. Courtesy German Bundesarchiv.

Getting news in Geneva of stranded relatives was also difficult. During mobilization the government took control of the telegraph lines and private messages were difficult to send. In addition, shortly after the war started, the British cut all five German telegraph lines passing through the English Channel. Most families had no news of their relatives for two weeks or more. The Times reported every letter and cable from a Genevan that came to their attention. Katherine Gracey, who was in Switzerland when war broke out, was able to cable her safety to her family by August 13, but a letter she sent on July 31 was not received until August 24. Her family did not hear from her again until she cabled from London on September 4.

Group photo of faculty at Hobart and Williams Smith Colleges, c 1914.
Hobart Professors Alexander L. Harris and Edward J. Williamson were among those Genevans caught in Europe during the outbreak of war.

Some Americans were concerned about being mistaken for British subjects. This was a legitimate problem as passports were not required for travel in most of Europe and therefore not all travelers had them. The situation became a dangerous one for the head of the HWS German Department, Professor Williamson, who was trapped in Berlin at the outbreak of war. Canadian-born, he had a British passport and was in danger as soon as Britain declared war on Germany. Citizens of enemy nations were not permitted to leave the country, and he had to appeal to the American Embassy for a passport. The passport was granted based on his long residency in Geneva, and he was able to leave on a train especially for Americans. He was lucky, or he could have been one of the more than 5,000 British civilian men interned in Germany during the war.*

Photo of a young woman sitting on a porch, c. 1920
Katherine Gracey's post-college tour of Europe coincided with the outbreak of war.

Those who had been in Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany made their way slowly to ports in Holland, France and Italy, where they hoped to get steamship passage back to England or the United States. Then the difficulty became finding and paying for passage. At the same time that scores of people were fleeing Europe, ships were canceling runs across the Atlantic. As soon as war broke out, German and Russian steamships ceased running to the U.S. for fear of capture. Like the trains, many ships were also requisitioned for troop transport. The U.S. government even ordered battleships to Europe to assist in bringing Americans home. Katherine Gracey traveled across the English Channel from Havre to London on the Tennessee, which had left Virginia on August 6 with $8,000,000 in gold bullion to help Americans stranded in Europe. It shuttled them across the Channel and then went to help Jewish refugees leave Palestine as the war engulfed the Ottoman Empire.

Photo of sailors and refugees on deck of USS Tenessee
USS Tennessee transports expelled Russian Jews from Palestine to Alexandria, Egypt, c. 1914. U.S. Naval Historical Center

The least lucky travelers may have been the few immigrants to the United States who were back visiting family or friends in Europe that summer. According to Geneva’s newspaper, one of these, Geneva Cutlery grinder Frederick Schneider of Avenue B, was in danger of being drafted into the German army. There seems to be no further reference to him in the paper, and he is not listed in the city directory after 1913. He may well have been shipped to the Front.

All other travelers accounted for in the Geneva Daily Times appear to have returned from their adventures unscathed. Some reported their ships sailing with lights extinguished at night or being stopped by British or French ships on their way out of European waters. A few heard rumors of their ships being followed, but none reported any great concern for traveling. Americans in far fewer numbers would continue to cross the Atlantic, a voyage that would become very dangerous by January 1915 when Germans began to sink American merchant ships. The German sinking of the British passenger liner the Lusitania in May of 1915 resulted in 1000 deaths, including 128 Americans. This incident and the sinking of American ships became a source of anger that would turn American opinion against the Germans by 1917 and lead the United States to join the European conflict.

Drawing of the sinking of the Lusitania
The 1915 sinking of the Lusitania helped turn American opinion against Germany. Courtesy German Bundesarchiv.

*Both the Germans and the British had internment camps for POWs and men of fighting age caught behind their borders at the start of war. See the sites below for more on this forgotten history.